Funnel has two types of custom metrics: **formula** custom metrics, and **rule** custom metrics. They operate on different levels of aggregation; **rule** metrics are calculated per row pre-aggregation, **formula** metrics operate on totalled data, post-aggregation. Read more about how formula and rule metrics are calculated.

Rule metrics work like any other metric in Google Data Studio so the rest of this article concerns **formula** metrics.

### Funnel formula metrics

A formula metric is a simple arithmetic formula like for instance:

`CPC = cost / clicks`

Read more about creating custom metrics.

### Google's calculated fields

Calculated fields are almost identical to Funnel's metrics. Remember how Funnel has two types of metrics? Data Studio has them too, but the difference can be hard to see. This formula, for instance, operates post-aggregation, and has aggregation 'Auto':

`SUM(cost) / SUM(clicks)`

Aggregation type 'Auto' means that Data Studio will not try to aggregate these values further after the formula is applied, and cannot be changed by the user.

This formula operates on each row of data, and can be aggregated after the formula is applied:

` cost * 2`

The aggregation type defaults to 'Sum' but can be changed to, for example, 'Average' or 'Max':

The difference in the formula is the `SUM().`

This tells Data Studio to first add up all the `cost`

values, then all the `clicks`

values, then divide total cost with total clicks.

Without `SUM()`

Data Studio will apply the formula to every row of data.

**Note** that you can't combine `SUM()`

with non-totalled metrics, for instance

`SUM(cost) / clicks`

Will result in an error in the Data Studio formula editor.

## How Funnel exports formulas to Data Studio

Funnel formula custom metrics are exported to Google Data Studio, and are available for use just like any other metric. The difference is that Funnel exports the *formula*, not the values; in the CPC example above, Data Studio will request `cost`

and `clicks`

from Funnel and apply the formula itself.

When Funnel exports formula custom metrics, we want post-aggregation, so Funnel's CPC formula:

` cost / clicks `

Is in Data Studio:

`SUM(cost) / SUM(clicks)`